### Summary

Data Science is a multi-disciplinary field focused on extracting actionable insights from large sets of raw and processed data. It includes techniques for data collection, preparation, analysis, visualization, and decision-making. It’s at the heart of machine learning and AI, offering a data-driven foundation for making precise and reliable predictions.

### ELI5

Imagine trying to solve a massive jigsaw puzzle that reveals a super cool picture, but you have no idea what the picture looks like. Data Science is like a way to sort these puzzle pieces, identify different sections of the picture, and then finally complete the whole puzzle. The completed puzzle gives you valuable information to understand and solve your problems.

### In-depth explanation

Data Science is a convergence of multiple fields including statistics, mathematics, programming, and domain expertise designed to extract meaningful insights and predictions from data. It employs a variety of techniques for data processing, analysis, modeling, visualization, and interpretation, with the ultimate goal of utilizing data to stimulate growth, improve efficiency, or understand trends.

The data science process usually starts with data collection, for instance, via web scraping, database extraction, or third-party APIs. Data collected could be structured (tabular and easily organized) or unstructured (such as text or images). This raw data is then preprocessed to handle missing values, outliers, or inconsistencies, which is the core part of data cleaning or wrangling.

Then, exploratory data analysis (EDA) is carried out to understand the nature of data, relationships between variables, anomalies, patterns, and trends. It can include summary statistics, correlation measures, and visual representation of data using charts and graphs.

Next, based on input data and the problem statement, an appropriate model (a mathematical algorithm) is selected, trained, and tested on the data. This process involves choosing an algorithm (like a decision tree, neural network, or support vector machine), feeding it data to learn from (fitting), and then letting it predict on unseen data.

Lastly, data-driven recommendations or predictions are communicated using effective data visualization or reporting. This assists non-technical stakeholders to understand the findings and make informed decisions.

Under the umbrella of data science, Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are subdomains that learn from data to automate decision-making processes. While ML models rely heavily on statistical inference to predict outcomes from input data, AI seeks to mimic human cognition to sense, reason, act, and adapt.

### Related terms

Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining, Big Data, Predictive Analytics, Neural Networks, Deep Learning, Statistical Modeling, Data Visualization, Data Cleaning, Exploratory Data Analysis, Regression, Classification, Clustering, Natural Language Processing (NLP),, Image Processing