Summary

Positional Encoding is a method used in AI and ML to inject order and position information into data sequences. It solves the challenge of maintaining the sequence of data inputs such as sentences, which traditional Neural Networks struggle with.

ELI5

Imagine you’re trying to put together a jigsaw puzzle blindfolded. It’s tough because you have no idea which piece goes where. That’s what a neural network often feels like when it’s dealing with sequences or series of data. Positional Encoding is like numbering each puzzle piece so that the model knows what order they go in.

In-depth explanation

In certain applications such as Natural Language Processing (NLP), data doesn’t exist in isolation, but is part of a sequence. Traditional Neural Networks fail to consider this order of data, potentially leading to inconsistent or inaccurate predictions.

Positional Encoding is a solution introduced with transformer models, specifically with the advent of the attention mechanism. It’s a method of representing the position of tokens in a sequence in a way that the network can understand, while also preserving the meaning of the sequence.

The most common types of positional encoding are learnable and fixed positional encodings. Learnable encodings initially assign arbitrary position values which the model learns to adjust for optimal prediction during training. Fixed encoding (like sine-cosine encoding) assigns position values based on a predefined function.

In the case of sine-cosine encoding, each position in the sequence is represented using a high-dimensional vector. Each element in this vector is calculated using sine or cosine functions of different frequencies ensuring each position generates a unique encoding.

This encoding is then added element-wise to the input embeddings. The resulting sequence is capable of capturing relative positions, absolute positions, and the distances between various positions in the sequence.

For instance, in NLP, positional encoding helps the model understand the difference between “The cat chases the mouse” and “The mouse chases the cat” even when the words are processed independently in no particular order.

Positional Encoding’s strength lies in endowing models with the capability to handle variable-length sequences and facilitating deeper understanding of sentence structures, relationships, and semantic nuances.

Sequence Models, Transformers, Attention Mechanism, Embedding (Word Embedding),s, Natural Language Processing (NLP), (NLP)