A Reasoning Technique in Artificial Intelligence is the method by which an AI system draws conclusions from given information. It correlates to the logic and deduction processes humans use to form judgements.
Imagine you are playing a game of guess where you ask Yes or No questions to figure out the hidden object. The way you choose your questions and make guesses based on the answers, that’s similar to how a Reasoning Technique works in AI.
In the area of artificial intelligence (AI), a Reasoning Technique serves as the approach by which an AI agent generates conclusions from available knowledge or data. It emulates the cognitive processes that humans employ in forming judgments and making decisions, which often involves the application of logic and rules.
Reasoning techniques are essential components of AI systems, particularly those that are leveraged for problem-solving, decision-making, and predictive tasks. These techniques enable systems to interpret data inputs, apply learned or coded rules, and generate meaningful outcomes or decisions.
Various types of reasoning techniques exist, largely categorized into two main types: deductive and inductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning, or rule-based reasoning, operates top-down, starting from established laws and principles to derive specific conclusions. For instance, deductive reasoning is predominant in Expert Systems that depend on a predefined rule set.
Inductive reasoning, on the other hand, is bottom-up, deriving general principles from observed instances or patterns. Many machine learning algorithms, for instance, use inductive reasoning to build predictive models based on training data.
Another essential reasoning method is abductive reasoning, which involves reaching the best possible explanation or hypothesis given the existing evidence. This reasoning technique is prominent in diagnostic and troubleshooting applications.
Reasoning techniques also play a key role in advanced AI subfields, such as in automated reasoning, which is a field dedicated to understanding different reasoning methods and applying these to AI systems. In the broader AI landscape, reasoning techniques are instrumental in enabling intelligent behaviour and decision-making in AI systems.